北风吹:从奥斯卡到艺术圈,从政治正确到艺术正确
发起人:脑回路  回复数:1   浏览数:390   最后更新:2017/04/07 11:05:01 by guest
[楼主] 脑回路 2017-03-01 16:30:08

来源:凤凰艺术 王家北


政治正确与艺术正确

美国当地时间2017年2月26日(北京时间2月27日),89届奥斯卡颁奖典礼举行,《月光男孩》(Moonlight)获得“最佳影片奖”,伴随着现场《爱乐之城》(La la land)的乌龙,引发巨大争议。本部影片以黑人与同性恋题材出发,以三段式的人物生活,构造了一部完完全全的黑人电影”,因此引发关于“政治正确”的讨论。但在一股脑的“政治正确”浪潮中,艺术作品中“艺术正确”却被忽视。以下为“凤凰艺术”为您带来的评论报道。


本届《月光男孩》的获奖,被人认为是奥斯卡继往年“太白”的批评后所进行“政治正确”的刻意改进,同时也是借此声讨美国新任总理特朗普的手段——多位奥斯卡提名明星在参加典礼时都佩戴了蓝色丝带出场,以表示他们对于美国民权运动以及有关组织的支持,而该组织是首批通过司法程序对特朗普移民禁令提出抗议的组织之一。在本次奥斯卡上,黑人演员不仅包揽了最佳男女配角,还有最佳影片。

▲ 《月光男孩》海报


继特朗普宣布参选美国总统并获得成功后,“政治正确”的说法又被广泛提及。对于文艺界所号召的“正确”来说,伴随着奥斯卡颁奖的另外一件事情同样重要:美国新闻媒体《纽约时报》在十年后重新为自己做起了广告——还是一个在奥斯卡颁奖典礼上价值200万至230万美元的30秒广告位,主题:The Truth Is Hard”(真相难寻)。


▲ 《纽约时报》广告


广告之中没有任何复杂的元素,只是一句以“The Truth Is”开头的话语,后面不断变化着句子的内容——“真相是媒体都在撒谎”“真相是这个国家比以往更分裂”“真相是女人应该穿得像个女人”……广告最后的字幕呈现,“真相比任何时候都重要。”纽约时报高级品牌副总裁David Rubin在接受行业媒体Adage采访时说,“全国都在讨论真相是什么,纽约时报也想让人了解原创调查报道是如何生产的,以及媒体在探索真相时的作用是什么?当他们了解这些时,会更加支持新闻业及事实。” 而除了宣扬媒体精神,这次的广告投放也可以帮助《纽约时报》推动数字订阅及广告投放的增长。


▲ 广告视频


▲ 广告文字


真相确实很重要。但当我们强调一个事情的重要性时,同样代表着日常生活中对于这件事情的缺失,而在另一个方面,“选择性的真相”并不比谎言危害小。以《月光男孩》为例,黑人、同性恋、毒品、贫穷,再加上超高的外媒评价和奥斯卡大热门身份,这部电影很容易让人产生偏见。在过去一年经历过诸多风雨洗礼的美国黑人生存环境下诞生的这部影片,会不会“利用”现实投机取巧,凭政治和道义上的正确“胁迫”了舆论?然而,看过电影的人都会发现,这是封闭体系内黑人内心与现实世界的理性表达,更像是个人成长与外在世界变化的妥协与磨合所带来的沉重与痛苦。它的获奖,或许有政治因素,但更多的是“政治正确”后的“艺术正确”——其主体是真诚与具有艺术性的。

▲ 特朗普推特批评主流媒体“虚假”


与之相对的,另一部获得巨大声誉的电影《爱乐之城》,则是一部隐藏在“艺术正确”下“政治正确”的影片。这部早早地被冠以“男默女泪”、“怀念美好”、“不要和你的现任一起去看”等诸多光环的爱情歌舞片,甚至被一些人认为是近年来最伟大的歌舞片,或是泰坦尼克号后的又一爱情力作。然而,事实上,这是对这个商业化严重的平庸时代的最大附和,也是一场形式主义大杂烩的胜利与狂欢——披着怀旧与致敬的驱壳,用音乐、舞蹈和情感等元素不断地对感官进行挑逗,背后却是简单粗暴不合逻辑,大美国梦式的剧情脉络。这种大数据时代下的电影,将一切抓取到的可以吸引人的元素与片段拼凑堆砌在一起,组成了一团针簇——总有一个片段可以扎到你的痛点,但是,其内在本质是苍白与匮乏的,无法到达人的内心——而这,才是商业时代的“政治正确”,却与其所宣传的“艺术正确”毫无关联。

▲ 《爱乐之城》


在某种程度上,艺术创作同样呈现出类似的趋向。在一些作品中,艺术家讲古代故事,讲哲学概念,讲自己的脉络走向。我们可以承认这些艺术家创作逻辑缜密,历史脉络清晰,研究方法学术,但是,在高度哲学化,或是高度假装哲学化的艺术作品中,反而艺术最为基本的“美感”,或是其触达人心灵的力量却消失了。这些艺术作品以“研究”、“实验”、“多元”或是其它听起来很高级的词语为名,让人“不明觉厉”却毫无感动。那么,这难道不是另一种不可置疑的“政治正确”吗?


无论是电影,还是艺术作品,那些熟练掌握“设计化”技巧的创作者,将他们在作品或表达中将一切可供写作的特质与逻辑装在盘子里明明白白,一股脑地端到人们面前时,一种对其创作本质真诚性的怀疑却会油然而生。因为,每个个体的真情实感才是“艺术正确”的那一个,而对此的缺乏的创作,就像一个只是把那些可以成功的元素包装成一种不容置疑的产品。


当晚的奥斯卡发生了另外一个乌龙事件:在缅怀去世电影人的环节,戏服设计师珍妮·帕特森(Janet Patterson)的照片放错了,照片里的人其实是制片人简·查普曼(Jan Chapman),查普曼目前还活着。特朗普的儿子小唐尼·特朗普在推文中表示:有趣的错误,好像好莱坞压根不在乎那些幕后工作人员。

▲ 美国总统特朗普


事实上,政治正确从来不是个事,但打着政治正确的旗号去攫取利益与话语权,虚假又刻意地展现某种姿态,以此去进行集团斗争却是完全不正确的。 “你是谁,塞隆?”在《月光男孩》结尾,凯文面对十多年不见的朋友这么问道。那么,我们要的是政治正确,还是艺术正确,还是不正确?

[沙发:1楼] guest 2017-04-07 11:05:01
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